The terms ‘vaccination’ and ‘immunisation’ don’t mean quite the same thing. Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine – that is, actually getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease following vaccination. Our current research in this area is focusing on: the evaluation of procedures to increase uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in schools; and modelling vaccination against the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea. Previously we successfully demonstrated the value of rolling out a vaccine against Meningitis B as part of the routine immunisation of babies in the UK.